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Vocabulary Key to "Tsay do Greisghilde"

Page history last edited by Mundialecter 6 years, 11 months ago

VOCABULARY KEY TO « TSAY DO GREISGHILDE »

 

Tsay do Greisghilde” is the Sambahsa translation and adaptation into a novel of “Retour à Griseguilde”, an excellent fan-made sequel by Voyageur Solitaire to the famous gamebook “the Talisman of Death” by Jamie Thomson and Mark Smith.

 

Voyageur Solitaire has generously granted his authorization for the adaptation into Sambahsa.

 

Thanks to the Goldendict pop-up dictionary (http://sambahsa.pbworks.com/w/page/52788470/Sambahsa%20Dictionary%20for%20Windows%2C%20Mac%20and%20Linux ), many words can be instantly translated, or their meaning can be easily guessed by the reader. However, some derived words and compounds, though they may be entirely consistent with the grammatical rules of Sambahsa, are difficult to decipher. The aim of this document is to translate and explain such words found in “Tsay do Greisghilde”. They are indicated in blue in the novel, and you can use the search function to find them in this Word format document. This way, we hope that vocabulary key will make you familiar with word-formation in Sambahsa.

 

 

“EUPHONIC VOCALISATION” :

 

According to this rule (see the grammar), nouns and adjectives can bear optional endings indicating gender, number and case.

 

Apos + a = apsa = joints

 

Citadios = citad + ios = city (genitive singular)

 

Ekwens = ekw + ens = horses (accusative)

 

Elsi = els + i = his/her (before several living beings)

 

Ira = ir + a = their (before nouns of things)

 

Irem = ir + em = their (before a singular noun of living being)

 

Iren = ir + en = of their (before a plural noun)

 

Irens = ir + ens = their (plural accusative before living beings)

 

Irios = ir + ios = of their (before a singular, masculine or neutral, noun)

 

Irs = ir + s = of their (before a singular noun)

 

Niesen = nies + en = of our (before a plural noun)

 

Nosters = noster + s = of our (before a singular noun)

 

 

Verbal endings :

 

Before “-s” or “-t”, g & k turn to c-, and b to p.

 

Arct = ark + t = kept off, contained

Attract + attrag + t = attracted

Dehlcs = dehlg + s = you (thou) must

Protect = proteg + t = protected

Reg + t = rect = stretched out

Scrib + t = script = written

Tehrb + t = tehrpt

Tract = trag + t = pulled, drawn

Urg + t = urct = urges, is urging

 

 

“nasal infix verbs” :

 

Those verbs have an unstressed pronounced “e” as their last vowel, before or after “n/m”. They undergo no ablaut.

 

For the present tense, the unstressed “e” disappears everywhere it’s possible :

 

Brinegh + o = bringho = I bring

Glanez + end = glanzend = glancing

Spernend-ye = speren + end + -ye = by spurring

Spernte = speren + te = (you) spur

Surprined + end = suprindend = surprising

Yuneg + end = yungend = connecting

 

Likewise for the conditional :

 

Pregen + ie + t = (he/she/it) would imprint

 

Those both letters disappear for the past tense :

 

Ambhglanez > ambhglaz = looked around

Interposen > interpos = interpose = interposed

Posen > pos = laid down; pos + it = posit = (he/she/it) laid down

Speren > sper = spur > spurred

Spraneg > sprag = burst (pres.) > burst (past.) (transitive)

 

As well as for the past participle :

 

Stuned > studen = knocked

 

 

 

 

 

PAST TENSE :

 

Von Wahl rules :

 

According to those rules, the past tense of verbs is obtained through a modification of their final letter(s)

 

D > s

 

Decid > decis + im = decisim = I decided

Edd > ess + am = we ate

Land > lans + am = lansam = we landed

Vid > vis + im = I saw

 

Rg > rs

 

Emerg > emers  = emerged

Merg > mers ; + im = mersim = I dived

Porg > pors = showed, gave

Urg > urs = urged

 

Ct > x

 

Plect > plex = shrugged

Reflect > reflex = thought about ; reflexim = I was thinking about

 

Tt > ss

 

Flott > floss + am = flossam = we floated

 

Ablaut :

 

“Ablaut” is phenomenon according to which the central vowels of some words undergo a mutation for the past tense.

 

ehC > ohC

 

Ambhspehc ( = ambh [around] + spehc [to look at]) > ambhspohc = looked around

Ambikwehl > ambikwohl = bustled around

Antwehrd > antwohrd = answered

Diaspehr > diaspohr = dispersed

Disprehp > disprohp = disappeared

Mehld > mohld =indicated

Persehkw > persohkw + it = persohkwit = (he/she/it) pursued

Pfwehng > pfwohng = dilated

Sbehrst > sbohrst = broke up

Schehnk > schohnk = poured, gave

Sehrp > sohrp = wound

Stehlb > stohlb = protruded

Stehmb > stohmb = stalked

Trehc > trohc + im = trohcim = I displaced myself, I moved ; + it = trohcit = (he/she/it) displaced (him/her/it)self;  + eer = trohceer = they were heading

Vehrs > vohrs = paid, poured

 

Ei > i

 

Besteigh > bestigh = climbed up

Eiskw > iskw + -eer = iskweer = (they) sought

“eiskw- un werd + dat” = to ask someone a question”

etileikw > etilikw + it = etilikwit = (he/she/it) remained

Enderkweit > enderkwit ; + -im = enderkwitim = I distinguished

Leit > lit + eer = liteer = (they) went (figurative meaning)

Mantein > mantin = maintained

Neih > nih = guided, led

Steigh > stigh = went up

Tyeic > tyic = made, caused

Vergeih > vergih = avoided

 

Eu > u

 

Beleuc > beluc = lightened

Deusk > dusk = darkened

Engheulf > enghulf = rushed

Feug > fug + it = fugit = (he/she/it) fled

Kyeus > kyus = pointed out, chose

Mleu > mlu = said

Neuk > nuk = nodded ; + it = (he/she) nodded

Nisteurd > nisturd = slid down ; + it = nisturdit = (he/she/it) slid down

Veulbh > vulbh = wrapped

 

 

For verbs in “a”, the ablaut is optional, though often used :

 

Apterghang > apterghieng = followed

Attrag > attrieg = attracted

Clangh > cliengh = rang

Collabh > collieb = collapsed

Corbach > corbiech = used the crop on

Crack > crieck = cracked

Dwighabel > dwighiebel = forked

Enfall > enfiell = came to mind

Inikas > inikies = reflected

Jamb > jiemb = strode over

Kamyab > kamyieb + im = kamyiebim = I succeeded in

Kal > kiel = called

Parat > pariet = made ready; is pariet-se = he made himself ready

Plan > plien = planned

Protiedar = protiedier = tugged on

Rahat > rahiet = rested

Taragh > tariegh = rocked

Tarak > tariek = cracked

Udclangh > udcliengh = resounded

Udkardkasch > udkarkiesch = drew (one’s weapon)

Uperfall > uperfiell = fell on

Uperghang > uperghieng = went beyond

Wals > wiels = stationed

Wassal > wassiel = found back each other

 

Likewise, au > ieu

 

Stau > stieu = was standing upright

And ay > iey

 

Baygh > bieygh + am = bieygham = we belonged to

 

The sigmatic aorist :

 

With some verbs, often of Romance origin, an “s” is suffixed to the verbal stem to get the past tense, with the use of the conjugation endings.

 

Adduc > adduxeer = (they) led

 

Attrag > attraxit = (he/she/it) attracted

 

Collab > collapsser = (they) collapsed

 

Drah > drahsit = (he/she/it) ran

 

Ghyah > ghyahsit = it opened itself, was opened

 

Reg > rexit = (he/she/it) stretched out

 

Scrib > scripsit = (he/she/it) wrote

 

It can even be added to roots with ablaut, for reasons of euphony.

 

Kleu > (ablaut) klu. Klu + s + it = klusit = (he/she) listened to

Mleu > (ablaut) mlu. Mlu + s + it = mlusit = (he/she) said

Stau > (ablaut) stieu. Stieu + s + it = (he/she/it) stood upright

 

Past tense endings :

 

Those endings are only compulsory for verbs whose stem doesn’t undergo any modification for the past tense

 

Accelereer-se = accelere + eer + se = (they) accelerated

Controleer = control + eer = (they) controlled

Crucim = cruce + im = I crossed

Defileit = defilee + it = (it) streamed (figuratively)

Encouragim = encourage + im = I encouraged

Entram = entre + am = we entered

Entreer = entre + eer = (they) entered

Entrim = entre + im = I entered

Entrit = entre + it = (he/she) entered

Ghensim = ghens (past tense of “ghend”) + im = I took

Installim = installe + im = I installed ; installit = installe + it = (he/she/it) installed

Intervenit = interven + it = (he/she/it) intervened

Katuit = katue + it = (he/she/it) fought

Murmurim = murmure + im = I muttered

Passim = passe + im = I passed

Presente + im = presentim = I presented, introduced

Protiokwit = protiokw + it = (he/she) stared at

Realisim = realise + im = I realised

Salutit = salute + it = (he/she) greeted

Sehr = seh + r = (they) sowed

Servit = serve + it = (he/she/it) served

Stressit = stress + it = (he/she/it) stressed

Tentim = tente + im = I attempted

Wakyit = wakye + it = (it) happened

 

Verbs ending in “ie” may replace the “e” with a “c”;

 

Crie + it = cricit = (he/she) shouted ; cricim = I shouted

Explie + it = explicit = (he/she) explained

 

 

 

FUTURE :

 

It can be expressed with the suffix “sie-“

 

Acceddsiet = accedd + sie + t = (he/she/it) will have access to.

Antwehrdsiem = antwehrd + sie + m = I will answer

Dehlcsies = dehlg + sie + s = you will have to

Feucsiet = feug + sie + t = (he/she/it) will flee

Ghehdsiem = ghehd + sie + m = I’ll be able to

Ghehdsiemos = ghehd + sie + mos = we’ll be able to

Gwehmsiemos = gwehm + sie + mos = we will come

Gwehmsient = gwehm + sie + nt = (they) will come

Gwivsies = gwiv + sie + s = you will live

Imdadhsiet = imdadh + sie + t = (he/she/it) will aid

Khacsiet = khak + sie + t = (he/she/it) won’t be able to

Maghsiem = magh + sie + m = I may

Marchesiemos = marche + sie + mos = we will march

Mehmsient = mehm + sie + nt = (they) will remember

Pancsiemos = paneg (nasal infix verb) + sie + mos = we will settle

Permittsient = permitt + sie + nt = (they) will permit ; permittsiet = (he/she/it) will permit

Poittsiete = poitt + sie + te = you’ll have the right to

Ralliesient = rallie + sie + nt = (they) will rallie

Reicsiemos = reik + sie + mos = we will return

Retrehfsiet = retrehv + sie + t = (he/she/it) will find back

Stambhsiet = stamebh (nasal infix verb) + sie + t = (he/she/it) will keep from

Stehmsient = stehm + sie + nt = (they) will support

Swehpsiet = swehp + sie + t = (he/she/it) will sleep

Tehrpsiemos = tehrb + sie + mos = we’ll need to

Tehrpsies = tehrb + sie + s = you’ll need to

Tehrpsiet = tehrb + sie + t = (he/she/it) will have to

Tolcsiemos = tolk + sie + mos = we’ll talk

Wakhsient = wakh + sie + nt = (they) will watch

 

 

CONDITIONAL (“would” + verb) :

 

Sambahsa adds “-ie-“ + present tense endings. If the verb ends with a mute “e”, this one is dropped.

 

Darient = dar + ie + nt = (they) would hold on

 

Detegiet = deteg + iet = (he/she/it) would detect

 

Emiet = em + ie + t = (he/she/it) would take

 

Ghehdient = ghehd + ie + nt = (they) could

 

Kwehriems = kwehr + ie + ms = we would do

 

Revidiemos = re + vid + iemos = we would see back

 

Riskiems = risk + ie + ms = we would risk

 

Scrutient = scrute + ie + nt = (they) would peer into

 

Sehkwient = sehkw + ie + nt = (they) would follow

 

Solliems = soll + ie + ms = we should

 

Tehrbient = tehrb + ie + nt = (they) would have to

 

 

INFINITIVES :

 

Verbs with an ablaut in “ei” or “eu”, undergo such an ablaut, and add “-es”

 

Antreus > antruses = to rely on

 

Besteigh > bestighes = to climb up

 

Betreus > betruses = to confide

 

Credeih > credihes = to believe

 

Dispareih > disparihes = to disappear

 

Enderkweit > enderkwites = to distinguish

 

Forleus > forluses = to shake off

 

Leur > lures = to set free

 

Mantein > mantines = to maintain

 

Meil > miles = to enjoy

 

Neih > nihes = to guide, to lead

 

Preim > primes = to receive

 

Teup > tupes = to hide oneself

 

Vergeih > vergihes = to avoid

 

 

“Nasal infix” verbs lose the unstressed “e”:

 

brinegh > bringhes = to bring

cumebh > cumbhes = to lay down.

Dwinegh > dwinghes = to compel

Erem > ermes = to row

Keren > kernes = to surround

Kussen > kunes = to kiss

Lambhen > lambhnes = to seize

Paneg > panges = to settle, fix

Posen > pones = to lay down

Speren > spernes = to spur

 

 

Other verbs whose last syllable is stressed simply add an “e” (often unpronounced) :

 

Incurr > incurre = to run (a risk)

Pand > pande = to bet

Uperdeh > uperdehe = to transmit

When a verbal stem already ends with an unstressed “e”, there is no change :

 

Installe = (to) install

 

The “past” infinitive and the active past participle use the same endings : -vs/-us

 

Installevs = installe + vs = having installed

 

There is an old infinitive word sometimes used after adjectives or nouns, in –tu

 

Baytu = bay + tu = to fear

Reuptu = reup + tu = (about) to be broken

 

 

PARTICIPLES :

 

Present active = (e)nd.

 

Ambikwehl + end = ambikwehlend = bustling around

Ark + end = arkend = moving away

Kreus + end = kreusend = shivering

Spraneg + end = sprangend = breaking up

Tente + (e)nd = tentend = attempting

Vank + end = vankend = flickering

Vibre + (e)nd = vibrend = vibrating

 

With the adverbal ending “-ye”, it makes a gerundive.

 

Abstaunend-ye = abstaun + end + -ye = being amazed

Glanzend-ye = glanez + end + -ye = by glancing

Regend-ye = reg + end + -ye = stretching out

Spehnd-ye = speh + nd + -ye = by hoping

 

 

Past (passive) = -t /-(e)n

 

Clauster + (e)n = claustern = clustered

Dishang + t = dishanct = undone

Du + n = dun = dressed

Du + t = dut = dressed

Em + en = emen = taken (figurative meaning)

Emitt + en = emitten = emitted

Maun + t + o = warned

Sculp + t + o = sculpto = sculpted

Seg + en = segen = cut

Tend + en = tenden = tensed

Uperdeh + n = uperdehn = transmitted

Uperdeh + t = uperdeht = transmitted

 

Verbs with an ablaut in eh, ei or eu undergo such an ablaut :

 

 

Adbehr > adbohrn = offered, consecrated

Balstehm > balstohmt = damned

Covehr > covohrn + o = covohrno = covohrna = covered = covohrt = covohrnios (with the singular, masculine or neutral, genitive ending)

Credeih > crediht = believed

Dehlg > dohlct = past participle of “dehlg” = “must”

Diaspehr > diaspohrn = scattered

Dreibh > dribhen = carried away

Endergwehm > endergwohmen / endergwohmt ; + ens = endergwohmtens = those who have taken refuge (accusative plural)

Exmehn > exmohnt = invented, forged

Gostpreim > gostprimen = given hospitality to

Grehv > grohft + o = grohfto = engraved

Gvehd > gvohden = prayed

Kehmb > kohmpt = bent

Kyehrsen > kyohrnen (kyohrsnen) = blackened

Leik > liken = played

Leizd > lizden / lizdt = bordered

Leus > lust = lost

Meizd > mizden = recompensed

Neic > nicen = killed

Neud > nudt = used

Perbehrg > perbohrct / perbohrgen = concealed

Persehkw > persohkwt / persohkwn = persued

Poleih > poliht = polished

Prispehc > prispohcen = attended, witnessed

Sellgwehm > sellgwohmt = welcomed

Seut > suten = appeased

Swehng > swohnct = brandished

Treic > trict + a = tricta = plaided, braided (neutral plural)

Uperkeih > uperkiht = dominate > dominated

Veulbh > vulbhen = wrapped

Veurn > vurnt / vurnen = wound > wounded

 

The Von Wahl rules apply for the “-t” participle of verbs without ablaut :

 

Compromitt + t = compromiss = compromised

Merg + t = mers = plunged

Precedd + t = precess = preceded

Previd + t = previs = foreseen

 

 

“Nasal infix” verbs lose the unstressed “e” and “n/m”, and can undergo Von Wahl rules.

 

Dverwen > dverw + (e)n +o = dverwno = harnessed

Dwinegh > dwigh + en = dwighen = compelled

Erem > er + (e)n + o = erno = rowed

Epterslahem > epterslah + (e)n = epterslahn = pulled up (a garment)

Paneg > pag + en = settled, set

Pineg > pig + en = pigen = painted

Trehen > treh + (e)n = worn out = trehto = treh + t + o

Yuneg > yug + en = linked

 

When there is no ablaut, “v” after a consonant turns to “w” before “t”.

 

Salv > salwt = saved;  compare the English words “salvation” & “salute”.

 

 

 

COMPOUNDS :

 

In general, Sambahsa compounds follow the same order as English :

 

Adgumt = ad + gumt = “at-coming”, arrival

 

Aghyernluce = aghyern + luce = morning light

 

Aghyernsaat = aghyern + saat = morning hour

 

Aghyernwaurn = aghyern + waurn = morning sky

 

Aksterrudh = akster + rudh = bright-red

 

Angstgongu = lump (in one’s throat) of anguish

 

Annemlwond = annem + lwo + nd = breath-taking

 

Aunbayga = aun + bayga = unfortunate

 

Aungwis = aun + gwis = forceless

 

Aunharm = aun + harm = harmless

 

Aydsmosklad = aydsmo + sklad = wood stock

 

Bittertplen = bittert + plen = full of bitterness

 

Bliutengarb = bliute + n + garb = shower of sparks

 

Blougreis = blou + greis = blue-grey

 

Bronzegwozso = bronze + gwozd + t (turns to “s” because of Von Wahl’s rule) = bronze-studded

 

Caudaula = caud + aula = backyard

 

Clarcuit = clar + cuit = (with a) clear skin

 

Clarteint = clar + teint = (with a) clear complexion

 

Cochersedd = cocher + sedd = coachman’s seat

 

Cortsect = cort + seg + t = cut short

 

Cruorrudh = cruor + rudh = red of shed blood

 

Cuperlampe = cuper + lampe = copper lamp

 

Daunosoration = daunos + oration = funeral oration

 

Diewogintou = diewo + gintou = overflooded with sunlight

 

Duilcovohrn = duil + covohrn (past participle of “covehr”) = covered with dust

 

Duilnebh = duil + nebh = dustcloud

 

Einsghesor = eins + ghresor = sword-wielding

 

Exiledwighen = exile + dwigh + en = forced to exile

 

Exterannem = exter + annem = out of breath

 

Feltercolpak = felter + colpak = felt cap

 

Fenstercortins = fenster + cortin + s = window curtains

 

Frontnauk = front + nauk = front craft

 

Furorskeumend = furor + skeum + end = boiling with rage

 

Ghomdrabs = ghom + drab + s = downstairs

 

Ghyorayg = ghyor + ayg = mountain goat

 

Ginterdreska = ginter + dresk + a (plural) = amber fragments

 

Glasdresken = glas + dresk + en (genitive plural) = of glas fragments

 

Goldwohrcto = gold + wohrct + o = gold-wrought

 

Greisblou = greis + blou = grey-blue

 

Gvrenstruden = gvrens + truden = overcome by the heat

 

Hainesflamboyant = haines + flamboyant = flamboyant with hatred

 

Horrorheul = horror + heul = howl of horror

 

Jenchikalding = jenchi + kalding = cold fountain of the warrior

 

Kabusjenchis = kabus + jenchi + s = ghost warrior

 

Kaylpotion = kayl + potion = healing potion

 

Kelimcovohrn = kelim + covohrn = covered with a carpet

 

Kerdbats = kerd + bat + s = heartbeats

 

Keulreuyden = keul + reuyden = agricultural plant, farm

 

Kijieptors = kijie + ptor + s = pheasant feathers

 

Kweiterblou = kweiter + blou = light blue

 

Kwoidsask = kwoid + sask = wheat ear

 

Kyalbohndt = kyal + bohndt (past participle of “behnd”) = locked in a room = kyalbohnden

 

Kyonksleik = kyonk + s + leik = game of the shell

 

Lavandecolor = lavande + color = lavender colour

 

Leikenweik = gambling borough

 

Lietersaltamarka = lieter + saltamarka = leather doublet

 

Locbohndto = loc + bohnd + t = held prisoner in a certain place (loc), “place-bound”

 

Lughplen = lugh + plen = full of lies

 

Marmorstieupens = marmor + stieupen + s = marble steps

 

Metallgwozso = metall + gwozs (von Wahl rule of “d” + “t”) + o = metall-studded

 

Nedalg = ne + dalg = not far

 

Negnoht = ne + gnoh + t = unknown

 

Noctgumt = noct + gumt = nightfall

 

Noctwaurn = noct + waurn = nightsky

 

Nowstrehl = now + strehl = crossbow shot

 

Pennghesor = penn + ghesor = a penn in the hand

 

Petrabenk = petra + benk = stone bench

 

Piurnregwos = piurn + regwos = twilight of fire

 

Prigaloppeer = pri + galopp + eer = (they) rode by

 

Prigwehme = pri + gwehm + e = to come by

 

Priswehnde = pri + swehnd + e = to fade by

 

Proaiwo = pro + aiwo = forever

 

Protiewaurgend = protie + waurg + end = pressing against

 

Purkerd = pur + kerd = pure-hearted

 

Pwolkeihnd = pwol + keih + nd = half lying

 

Pwolschiawkienen = pwol + schiawkien + en = half erased

 

Rehmenkwehster = rehmen + kwehster = whisper of relief

 

Seddelholks = seddel + holk + s = saddlebags

 

Sellnoct = sell + noct = good night

 

Sirmatricen = sirma + tricen (past participle of “treic”) = plaited with golden threads

 

Skumdewers = skum + dewer + s = whirls of foam

 

Solspruzen = sol + spruz + en = “splashed” with sunlight

 

Solweus = sol + weus = sunrise

 

Strehlgrandwn = strehl + grandwn = hail of shootings

 

Strehlstiftor = strehl + stiftor = shooter

 

Swordlaquen = sword + laque + -n = black lackered

 

Swordptor = sword + ptor = black-feathered

 

Tavanbalwngs = tavan + balwng + s = ceiling beams

 

Teniforces = teni + force + s = forces of darkness

 

Teniptergen = teni + pterg + en (genitive plural) = of wings of darkness

 

Teugbrem = teug + brem = (with a) thick foliage

 

Transbordam = trans + borde + am = we transshipped

 

Ubdrabs = ub + drab + s = upstairs

 

Uperghieng = uper + ghieng (past tense of “ghang”) = walked beyond

 

Uperpleukend = uper + pleuk + end = flying over

 

Uperpluk = uper + pluk = flew over

 

Uperskadhen = uper + skadh + en = overshaded

 

Upersru = uper + sru (past tense of “sreu”) = overflooded

 

Urbwalls = urb + wall + s = city walls

 

Vegetationsecran = vegetation + s + ecran = undergrowth screen

 

Visionspetra = vision + s + petra = stone of seeing

 

Windbaub = wind + baub = roaring of the wind

 

Windkweistel = wind + kweistel = moaning of the wind

 

Windstrid = wind + strid = hissing of the wind

 

Woxsgill = wox + sgill = wax seal

 

Xentitegut = xenti + tegut = thicket of thorny bush

 

Xurnghalv = xurn (past participle of “xeur”) + ghalv = shaven-skulled, skinhead

 

Yusmee = yu + smee = you all (when refering to a certain group)

 

 

Sometimes, a genitival ending may be used :

 

Lient + s + noct = lientsnoct = summer(‘s) night

 

 

Compounds from Romance languages :

 

Loanwords from Romance languages and Latin may be entirely consistent with some Sambahsa grammatical rules, like the Von Wahl rules :

 

Impulsion = in + pulg + (von Walr rule lg > ls ) + tion

Incomprehension = in + comprehend + (von Wahl rule : d > s) + tion

Incredible = in + credi(h) + ble = incredible, unbelievable

Inexspecten = in + ex + specte + -n = inexspectet = unexpected

Perceptible = percep + t + ible = perceptible

 

The agent suffix is in “-tor”, a final unstressed “e” turns to “a”.

 

Blaspheme > blasphemator = to blaspheme > blasphemer

 

 

Compounds from Sinitic languages :

 

Bfu + gwaukan = bfugwaukan = undecided

 

 

DERIVATION :

 

Adjectives from other adjectives :

 

“-er” is, as in English, the comparative

 

khaker = khak + er = worse

 

sud + er = suder = more to the south

 

A few adjectives or adverbs ending in a vowel use “-ter”.

 

Ex: diu > diuter = longer (in time)

 

“sub” + adjective of color = English –ish.

 

Subgehlb = yellowish

 

Adjectives from nouns :

 

The suffix “-eus” corresponds to English “ous”

 

Mysterieus = mysterious

 

Ex: Sambahsa “lik” = English “like”/”ly” (as an adjective)

 

Aschlik = asch + lik = ash-like

 

The suffix “-(e)n” means “made of”

 

Dreu > dreun = wooden

 

Tegule > tegulen = made of tiles

 

The suffix “-ic” corresponds to English “-ye”

 

Glehdj > glehdjic = ice > icy

 

The suffix “isk” corresponds more or less to English “-ish” :

 

Goilisk = mocking

 

 

The suffix “-went” means “endowed with, -ful” :

 

Ptorwent = ptor + went = feathered

 

Skadhwent = skadh + went = shadowy

 

The suffix “worts” corresponds to English “wards” :

 

Ghomworts = downwards

Sudworts = southwards

 

 

Adverbs from nouns :

 

“a-“ as a prefix can work as in English :

 

abord = a + bord = abord

 

acap = a + cap = ahead

 

atopp = a + topp = atop

 

“ho-“ as a prefix means “this” with a temporal noun.

 

“hovesper” = ho + vesper = tonight, this evening

 

 

“tos” as a suffix means “from”

 

“dextos” = from the right.

 

“tro” as a suffix means “direction to”

 

“dalgtro” = dalg + tro = far (with a move), into the distance

 

“intro” = In + tro = into, inside

 

“retro” = re(gv) + tro = back(wards)

 

“tetro” = te(r) + tro = to there, thither

 

 

Nouns from adjectives :

 

Some adjectives can form the corresponding noun by undergoing an ablaut and adding –e.

 

Chald > chielde = hot > heat

 

Chepran > chepriene = lively > liveliness

 

Hayran > hayriene = astounded > astonishment

 

Lughav > lughieve = perfidious > perfidiousness

 

Strak > strieke = tired > tiredness

 

Warm > wierme =warm > warmth

 

Other suffixes exist, like –tat (mostly after adjectives from Romance languages)

 

 

Febrile > febrilitat = febrile > febrility

Pur > purtat = pure > purity

 

 

Nouns from other nouns :

 

“in” is the feminine suffix :

 

reiderinen = reid (to ride) + er (agent suffix) + in (feminine suffix) + en (genitive plural) = of female riders.

 

When the noun ends with “-i”, the “i” is dropped and replaced with “nia”

 

Jenchi = warrior; jenchnia + s =jenchnias = female warriors

 

“ga” (prefix) + “-os” (suffix) indicates a group of things with a negative meaning :

 

gastieupnos = ga + stieup(e)n (step) + os = (bad) stairs

 

Nouns from verbs :

 

A very easy verb to get action names from verbs (mostly of IE origin) is to add the suffix –en, just as we do in English with the suffix “-ing”.

 

Tweis > tweisen = sparkle > sparkling

 

As in English, adding “-er” to a verb makes a noun of agent.

 

Plunder = plunderers (note that the Sambahsa noun must always indicate predictably the place of the stress).

Swindel = swindler = swindler

 

 

Verbal compounds :

 

“ab-“ :

 

= English “off”.

 

 

Abbohr = ab + bohr (past tense of “behr”) = carried away

Abcurs = ab + curr (past tense of “curr”) = ran away

Abgaloppam = ab + galopp + am = we rode away

Abgires = ab + gires (infinitive of “geir”) = to turn back

Ablit = ab + lit (past tense of “leit”) = went off

Abpieursk = ab + pieursk (past tense of “paursk”) = went off to fetch

Abpluk = ab + pleuk (past tense of “pleuk”) = flew off

Abrides = ab + rides (infinitive of “reid”) = to ride off

Abwohgh = ab + wohgh (past tense of “wehgh”) = to drive off

 

 

“-asc”

 

= “to become”

 

maimourasco = maimour (encharged) + asc + o (1° pers. sing. present tense) = I take care

slabasct = slab + asc + t = is getting weak

 

“bi-“ :

 

This prefix means “to begin/start (doing)”

 

Bi + curs (past tense of “curr”) = bicurs = began to run

Bi + despere + im = bidesperim = I began to despair

Bi + er (past tense of “erem”) + am = we began to row

Bi + ghieng (past tense of “ghang”) = bighieng = began to walk; bighanct = begun to walk

Bi + gnoh + s (sigmatic aorist) + im = bignohsim = I began to know, I got acquainted with

Bi + gnur (past tense of “gneur”) = bignur = began to gurgle

Bi + hul (past tense of “heul”) = began to yell

Bi + hungher (past tense of “heungher”) = bihungher = began to be hungry

Bi + meje + nd + -ye = by beginning to eat (“while I was beginning to eat...”)

Bi + rus = birus = began to crackle

Bi + schawngdan + end = beginning to discourage

Bi + sgwes (past tense of “sgwesen”) = bisgwes = began to go out (light)

Bi + stigh (past tense of “steigh”) + am = we began to climb

Bi + stris (past tense of “strid”) = bistris = began to hiss

Bi + styr + t = bistyrt = begun to steer

 

 

“des-“ :

 

Indicates the contrary.

 

Desois = des + ois (past tense of “oid”) = deflated

 

“dus-“ :

 

= English “ill, badly”

 

Duslites = dus + lites (infinitive of “leit”) = to be unwell.

Duswohrt = dus + wohrt (past tense of “wehrt”) = to turn ill

 

 

“-eih” :

 

X-eih = to make X

 

Arrestihes = infinitive of “arresteih” = to make arrest

Boderiht = boder (deaf) + ih + t (past participle) = deafened

Ceddihes = cedd + ihes (infinitive) = to make give in

Endergwehmeihndo = endergwehme (to take refuge) + eih + nd + o = causing to take refuge

Entrih = entre + ih = made enter

Feugeihnd = feug + eih + nd = making flee

Jambihes = jamb + ihes (infinitive) = to make stride over

Judcihes = infinitive of “judceih” = to make judge

Kyalbehndiht = kyal + behnd + ih + t = made (someone) jailed into a room

Marloubihn = marloub + ih + n = defeated

Myehrsihes = infinitive of “myehrseih” = to make forget

Oislidihsit = oi + slid + ih + s + it = (he/she/it) made slide

Verbs with an ablaut “ei” turn it to “i” for reasons of euphony.

Platih = plat + ih = made flat, flattened

Pohihes = poh + ihes = to made drink

Rundiht = rund + ih + -t (past participle = rounded, made round

Salgeihnd-ye = salg + eih + nd + -ye = by taking out

Salgihes = infinitive of “salgeih” = to take out of (to make go out of)

Salgih = took out of

Spasserihes = infinitive of “spassereih” = to take for a walk/ride outside

Sreuihsit = sreu + ih + s + it = made flow

 

 

As factitives preserve the accusative of the original verb, they often work with double accusatives.

 

“en-“ :

 

Before a noun, means “to put in”.

 

Ex: “endamier”, past tense of “endamar” = en + damar “bowstring” = to nock (an arrow); past participle : endamart

 

Enkasrit = en + kasre (from “kasra” = rout) + it = (he/she/it) routed (transitive)

 

Enwede = en + wed + e = to put into water

 

“For-“ :

 

If “for-“ and the reflexive pronoun is added to a verb, it gives to this verb the meaning “away, astray”.

 

Ex: for + leit (to go [figurative meaning]) = se forleit

 

“forleitend-se” = going astray

“forsafert” = travelled astray

“forsciss” = for + sciss (past participle of “scinesd”) = with a plunging neckline

“forwandert” = wandered astray

 

“mis-“ :

 

= English “mis-“

 

mistreusend = mis + treus + end = mistrustful, mistrusting

mistrust = mistrust(ed) 

 

“muta-“ :

 

Means “change of”

 

Mutaplacit = muta + place + it = (he/she/it) changed of place

 

“na-“ :

 

“continuative” = “to keep on (doing)

 

naghieng = na + ghieng = kept on walking

nalehge = na + lehg + e = to keep on telling

namejim = na + meje + im = I kept on having my meal

napluk = na + pluk (past tense of “pleuk”) = kept on flying

naspehcend = na + spehc + end = keeping on looking at

nastohmbam = na + stohmb (past tense of “stehmb”) + am = we kept on stalking

naswigh = na + swigh (past tense of “sweigh”) = remained silent

natrehce = na + trehc + e = to keep on moving oneself

natieyc = na + tieyc (past tense of “tayc”) = remained silent

navibrit = na + vibre + it = kept on vibrating

 

 

“ni-“ :

 

means “down”, often in a figurative meaning

 

nifiell = ni + fiell (past tense of “fall”) = fell down

 

“re-“ :

 

= English “re-“, again, back.

 

Rebrighen = re + brigh + en = brought back

Redahsim = re + dah + s + im = I gave back

Remsim = r(e) + em + s + im = I took back

Reklohng = re + klohng = folded back

Renfalle = r(e) + enfall + e = to come to mind

Renkardkiesch = r(e) + en + kardkiesch (past tense of “kardkasch”) = put back in its sheath.

Reskape = re + skap + e = to go off again

Restahe = re + stah + e = to stand back

Restahsit = re + stah + s + it = stood back

Restieusim = re + stieu + s + im = I stood back upright

Revide = re + vid + e = to see back

Revidsiemos = re + vid + siemos = we will see back

 

The “s-mobile” :

 

This was an IE verbal prefix whose function is still unclear. In Sambahsa, it has merged with the prefix “ois” (roughly corresponding to English “off”) so much that an “oi” is often added to verbs beginning with “s” + consonant, for reasons of euphonics.

 

Oiskeirlisit = oi + skeir + lis + it = (he/she/it) skimmed through

Oismeihnd-ye = oi + smeih + nd + -ye = by smiling

Oisper = oi + sper = past tense of “speren” = to spur

Oispohc = oi + spohc = past tense of “spehc” = to look

Oisroht = oi + sroht = past tense of “sreht” = to stir.

Oistabht = oi + stabht (past participle of “stamebh”) = hindered

Oistahnd-ye = oi + stah + nd + -ye = by standing

Oistahsit = oi + stah + s + it = (he/she/it) stood

Oistehmend-ye = oi + stehm + end + -ye = by supporting

Oistigh = oi + stigh = past tense of “steigh” = to go up

Oistrohc = oi + strohc = past tense of “strehc” = to extend ; oistrohcit = (he/she/it) extended

Oiswehbhe = oi + swehbh + e = to hover

Oiswohrt = oi + swohrt (past participle of “swehr”) = sworn

 

“(oi)s” is otherwise the opposite to “en-“ (see above) :

 

sdamarnd-ye = s + damar + nd + -ye = by shooting (an arrow)

 

“sua-“ :

 

= English “well”

 

suabeluct = sua + beluct (past participle of “beleuc”) = well lit

suadaken = sua + daken = well received

suadrughes = sua + drughes (infinitive of “dreugh”) = to betray well

suaguardet = sua + guarde + t = well guarded

suahissaben = sua + hissab + en = well reckoned

suamodelen = sua + model + en = well-shaped

suanihes = sua + nihes, infinitive of “neih” = to guide well

suaprimen = sua + primen (past participle of “preim”) = well received

suawoid = sua + woid = to know well

 

 

 

“vi-“ :

 

= “finally, eventually”

 

viarrivam = vi + arrivam = we finally arrived

viarrivit = vi + arrivit = (he/she/it) finally arrived

vicess = vi +  cess (past tense of “cedd”) = finally gave way

viexstirpit = vi + exstirpe + it = (he/she/it) finally removed

vilikw = vi + likw (past tense of “linekw”) = finallt left

virup = vi + rup (past tense of “rumep”= finally broke

 

“za-“ :

 

Indicates the end of an action.

 

Zaghyien = za + ghyien (past tense of “ghyan”) = closed again (“stopped opening”)

Zamejim = za + meje + im = I finished my meal

 

 

The iterative :

 

It works with some verbs of IE origin. The central vowel turns to “o”, and “-ye” is suffixed. It means that some action is kept on being performed after an interruption. (While “re-“ implies that the action may be performed again from the very beginning).

 

Ex : kwehre mien itner = to make my way

 

Kwohrye mien itner = to keep on making my way (after a halt, an interruption)

 

Reid > roidye = to keep on riding (after an interruption)

 

 

The desiderative :

 

= to want to, to plan.

 

“-skw” is suffixed to the verb.

 

Aurskwo = aur + skw + o = I want to hear

Leurskws = leur + skw + s = (you) want to set free

Sielvskwim = sielv (past tense of “salv”) + skw + im = I wanted to save

 

 

The durative :

 

Expressed by the suffix “neu” added to the verb. It corresponds to the English “present perfect” used in conjunction with “since, for”.

 

Antslehnkneuvs = antslehnk + neu + vs (past infinitive) = to have developped.

Schleivneun = schleiv + neu + n = polished

Submittneut = submitt + neu + t = has submitted

 

 

The eventive :

 

“not to stop doing, to keep on doing”. This tense is obtained by duplicated the first letter(s) of the verbal stem and inserting “i” or “ei”. Its past tense (“imperfect” = English progressive past) uses a prefix, the “augment” = “ee(-)”

 

gwah (to go) > eegwigwaht = ee + gwi (reduplication) + gwah + t = (he/she/it) was (always) going, kept on going.  (in recent PIE : égwegwât)

 

gwigwahnden = gwi + gwah + nd + en = of (people) who were going to and fro.

 

 

OTHER WORDS :

 

Prepositions :

 

“kye” means “towards, in the direction of”. It often merges with th following pronoun or article.

 

Kya = kye + ia = towards the(m)

Kyalters = kye + alter + s = in the direction of the others

Kyam = kye + iam = towards her, towards the (+ feminin noun)

Kyun = kye + un = in the direction of a(n)

 

 

Special conjunction “ghi” :

 

It is an “enclitic”, which means that it is often suffixed to the first word of the clause. It either means “indeed, then” or “for, because”.

 

Edghi = ed + ghi = and for, and indeed

Idghi = for the/it

Ioghi = io + ghi = for I, I indeed

Isghi = is + ghi = for (t)he...

Mighi = mi + ghi =for to me...

Oinghi = oin + ghi = for one...

 

“yaschi” :

 

Means “also, too”.

 

When used alone, “-schi” works like a clitic :

 

Betschi = bet + (ya)schi = but... too

Edschi = ed + (ya)schi = and... too

 

 

New words :

 

Carpent = framework of a coach; Gaulish root, found in French “charpente” and based on the same word as English “car”.

 

Bregna = (plural neutral) = “freckles”

 

Kaput = (!) bust, lost ; from German “kaputt !”

 

Chaste = chaste

 

Opportunist = opportunist

 

Progredd = to progress ; progreddent = they progress; progreddend = progressing

 

Pampas-grasa = pampas-grass (plural)

 

Diffus (past tense of “diffuned”) = diffuse

 

 

Sambahsa expressions :

 

(ses) con id atmen ei os = (to be) at the end of one’s tether.

Dank spollay = thank you very much

tib est oiscript = it is your doom = (your doom) to you is written.

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