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Vocabulary Key to "Philippe is Revolutionar"

Page history last edited by Mundialecter 10 years, 5 months ago

Vocabulary Key to « Philippe is Revolutionar »

 

This analysis is based on the “Wordle” software; thanks to D.McLeod who made me discover it.

This aim of this document is to help people interested by Sambahsa who would like to foster their knowledges in this language, and who can find here some indications on the most used words in some translated texts.

“Philippe is Revolutionar” is an adaptation in Sambahsa from a gamebook which tells the fictional story of Philippe d’Auvergne during the French Revolution. This text can be downloaded here : PHILIPPE IS REVOLUTIONAR.doc

 

The most common words are pronouns and the diverse conjugated forms of the irregular verbs “ses” and “habe”. As all this is explained in detail in the “Sambahsa grammar in English”, we can only recommend the readers to refer to the informations contained in this document. Likewise, we haven’t included proper nouns and words similar to their equivalents in English.

 

 

Adjectives :

Mohrt : dead

Smulk : small

 

Alyo : another (is declined). “Alter” = the other.

Maung : many, much

Plur : several

 

Oin = one

Un = a(n). Remember that all those three words can bear the optional declensional endings. A frequent encountered form is “uns” = “of a(n)”

Dwo = 2; bo = both

Tri = 3

 

 

Prepositions:

Ab : by (after a passive verbal construction). It turns (seldom indeed) to “af” before “h”. Sometimes, it can mean “starting from” too.

Apo : off

Aun : without

Bayna : among

De : about

Do : (in)to

Ep : on (before “h”, it can turn to “ef”)

Ex : out of

Inter : between

Kye : in the direction of, towards. It merges with the following article or personal pronoun of the 3° person. “kyid” = “towards the/id” is frequently encountered.

Med : with (an instrument).

Ob : because (of)

Pos : after

Pre : before (in time)

Pro : for

Prosch : near, with an idea of movement, closer to.

Samt : with (as a quality). Ex: “is pryster samt sword berd” = “the priest with a black beard”.

Sub : under

Ud : from

Unte : within a certain time/space. For example: “unte id wer” = “during spring”; “unte id dwer” = “through the door”. Can be used as an interrogative and relative pronoun too.

Ye : has no definite meaning, it expresses a circumstance, a condition. Examples: “ye mien surprise” = “to my surprise”; “ye mieno mayn” = in my opinion”.

As an hyphenated suffix to adjectives and even substantives, it serves to make adverbs.

 

 

Other invariable words:

Bet : but

Dar : still

Dind : afterwards, then

Ghi : has no definite meaning; serves to stress the preceding word and often appears in the second position in sentences. It can be rendered as “then” or “for” when it comes after a comma. Ex: “Is kieup neid; is ghi ne hieb denars” = “He didn’t buy anything, for he had no money”.

Ghom : down (irregular comparative : “niter”)

Ka : as a

kay : in order to. Often used as “to” before a verb.

Kun : as, when

Meis : more

Menxu : while

Od : that (as in “I know that...”). As in English, it can be often omitted.

Oku : quick

Perodh : forward

Quayque : although

Quo : what (as a relative pronoun)

Taiper : presently

Tem... quem : as.... as. “Tem” alone is “so (much)”, while “quem” corresponds to “than”.

To : that (in general, not as a demonstrative pronoun)

Tsay : again, back

 

 

Verbs:

Most verbs occur at the past tense in this text. In Sambahsa, ehV verbs undergo ablaut in the past tense (they turn to ohV)

Thus:

Dyehrc (to see suddenly) = dyohrc (saw suddenly)

Ghehd (to be able to) = Ghohd (was/were able to)

Kwehk (to seem) = kwohk (seemed)

Kwehr (to do) = kwohr (did)

Lyehg (to lie) = lyohg (lay)

 

Verbs in “a” turn it to “ie”.

 

Thus, “ay” = “say [in dialogues]” turns to “iey”.

 

 

Other verbs are subjected to the “Von Wahl rules”. Ex: “vid” = “to see” : “vis” = “saw”.

“ghend” = “to take” (in a material sense) = “ghens” (took)

 

Verbs that cannot alter their stem for the past tense must add the past tense endings.

Thus: “stah” = “to stand”; “stahsit” = “he/she/it stood”; the “s”, called the “sigmatic aorist”, is here for euphonics; “stahr” = “they stood”

 

Other example :

“duc” = “to lead” : “duxit” = “he/she/it led”  (here again duc + s + it = duxit; the “s” is for euphonics too)

 

Verbs with a “nasal infix” have an infinitive ending in “-es”.

Thus “linekw” = “leave” : “linkwes” = “to leave”. This nasal infix is dropped for the past tense: “likw” = “left”

 

 

 

Nouns:

Names of persons can be subjected to declensions. Ex: “Philippe”, but “Philippes” = “Philippe’s”.

 

Nouns can bear optional endings with declensions. Ex: “ekw” = “horse” can be declined this way, with the endings of the “undetermined gender”:

 

Case

Nominative

Accusative

Dative

Genitive

Singular

ekwis

ekwem

ekwi

ekwes

Plural

ekwi

ekwens

ekwims

ekwen

 

Arme : weapon

Brev : letter (message)

Citad : (big) city

Civ : citizen

Dien : day

Dom : house

Dorver : farmer; “dorev” = farm buildings.

Dwor : gate

(di)ghom : earth

Guardia : guard (military unit); a member of it is a “guarde”

Ighnos : trail, track, traces

Land : country, land

Mater : mother

Meithel : (big) square

Menegh : crowd

Mohrt : death

Officier : (military) officer

Pater : father

Popule : people (as opposed to the upper classes)

Roy : king

Soldat : soldier

Stat : state

Strad : street, road

Urb : city

Vetat : estate, private property

Wir : man (male)

Wogh : wagon, chariot

 

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