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Vocabulary key to "Khiters ed klehpters"

Page history last edited by Mundialecter 9 years, 5 months ago

Vocabulary Key to « Khiters ed Klehpters »

 

This analysis is based on the “Wordle” software; thanks to D.McLeod who made me discover it.

This aim of this document is to help people interested by Sambahsa who would like to foster their knowledges in this language, and who can find here some indications on the most used words in some translated texts.

“Khiters ed klehpters” is an adaptation in Sambahsa from a gamebook whose action takes place in Tolkien’s Middle-Earth, just before the War of the Ring. It is the continuation of “Deusker quem Temos”. Five unexperienced adventurers try to attack a bandits’ lair in the Trollshaws. This text can be downloaded here : Khiters_ed_klehpters[1].doc

 

The most common words are pronouns and the diverse conjugated forms of the irregular verbs “ses” and “habe”. As all this is explained in detail in the “Sambahsa grammar in English”, we can only recommend the readers to refer to the informations contained in this document. Likewise, we haven’t included proper nouns and words similar to their equivalents in English.

 

 

Adjectives :

Buland : tall

Facil : easy

Khiter : evil

Legv : light

Nov : new

Skarp : steep; sharp

Smulk : small

 

Alyo : another (is declined). “Alter” = the other.

 

Maung : many, much

Plur : several

Sem : some, certain

 

Hol = “whole”

Quant = “all”; but “all the” is “vasyo”, which is declined according to the “euphonic vocalisation”.

Oin = one

Un = a(n). Remember that all those three words can bear the optional declensional endings. A frequent encountered form is “uns” = “of a(n)”

Dwo = 2

Tri = 3

 

 

Prepositions:

Ab : by (after a passive verbal construction). It turns (seldom indeed) to “af” before “h”. Sometimes, it can mean “starting from” too.

Ant : in front of

Apter : behind

De : about

Do : (in)to

Engwn : along

Ep : on (before “h”, it can turn to “ef”)

Ex : out of

Inter : between

Kye : in the direction of, towards. It merges with the following article or personal pronoun of the 3° person. “kyid” = “towards the/id” is frequently encountered.

Med : with (an instrument).

Nieb : beside

Ob : because

Per : through

Pos : after

Pre : before (in time)

Pro : for

Prosch : near, closer to (with an idea of moving towards)

Ud : from

Unte : within a certain time/space. For example: “unte id wer” = “during spring”; “unte id dwer” = “through the door”. Can be used as an interrogative and relative pronoun too.

Uper : over

Ye : has no definite meaning, it expresses a circumstance, a condition. Examples: “ye mien surprise” = “to my surprise”; “ye mieno mayn” = in my opinion”.

As an hyphenated suffix to adjectives and even substantives, it serves to make adverbs.

 

 

Other invariable words:

Bet : but

Circa : about, approximately

Dar : still

Dind : afterwards, then

Ghom : down; its irregular comparative is “niter”.

Her, ter, quer [ker]  correspond to English here, there, where.

Lakin : however, nevertheless

Lyt : a little. “Lytil” = little; comparative and superlative : lyter, lytst

Kam : like, as; as an interrogative pronoun: how ?

kay : in order to. Often used as “to” before a verb.

Kun : as, when

Meis : more

Menxu : while

Od : that (as in “I know that...”). As in English, it can be often omitted.

Quayque : although

Tem... quem : as.... as. “Tem” alone is “so (much)”, while “quem” corresponds to “than”.

Ub : up

 

 

 

 

Verbs:

Most verbs occur at the past tense in this text. In Sambahsa, ehV verbs undergo ablaut in the past tense (they turn to ohV)

Thus:

Crehsc  (to grow) = crohsc (grew)

Ghehd (to be able to) = Ghohd (was/were able to)

Klehpt (to steal) = klohpt (stole)

Kwehk (to seem) = kwohk (seemed)

 

Verbs in “a” turn it to “ie”.

 

Thus, “ay” = “say [in dialogues]” turns to “iey”.

 

Verbs in “-ei-“ turn to “-i-“; Ex: “leit” = to go, to run (fig.) : “lit” = “went, ran”.

“reik” = “to get back to” : “rik” = “got back to”

“reiv” = “to rive” : “riv” = “rived”; “riven” is either “rift” or “riven”.

 

Likewise, verbs in “-eu” turn to “-u”.

Ex: “leud” = “to go up, to rise” : “lud” = “went up, rose”.

 

Other verbs are subjected to the “Von Wahl rules”. Ex: “vid” = “to see” : “vis” = “saw”.

 

Verbs that cannot alter their stem for the past tense must add the past tense endings.

Thus: “stah” = “to stand”, “stahsit” = “he/she/it stood”; the “s”, called the “sigmatic aorist”, is here for euphonics.

 

Nouns:

Akro : top, summit

Bollwehrg : bullwark

Bunge : copse

Burj : keep (of a castle)

Busk : bush

Clin : hill

Daga : dagger

Dal(in) : dale, valley

Dien : day

Drayl : trail, track

Drom : track

Dru : tree

Ekwo : (male) horse

Gras(s) : grass

Grund : ground

Itner : route, way; kwehr- itner kye : to head towards

Kyal : room

Lung : meadow

Partie : (hunting) party

Paund : path

Ped : foot

Perwnt : boulder

Puik : pine-tree

Rivier : river (a tributary of another river)

Soitos : spell (magics)

Sol : sun

Strad : street, road

Tor : tower

Tumar : parchment roll

Wall : rampart, wall

 

North/East/South/West are : nord/eust/sud/west.

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